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Despite a global mobilization last year, the lungs of the Earth are threatened more than ever by thousands of outbreaks of fires. A disaster that continues in the shadow of the Covid-19 pandemic and in general indifference.
A year ago, the Amazon was on fire under the indignant gaze of the whole world. While the excitement has since subsided, the fires have picked up again this summer and could prove to be more devastating than the year before. In all, 2,248 fire starts were recorded in the Brazilian jungle in June against 1,180 in 2019, according to satellite data from theNational Institute for Space Research Brazilian (INPE). A trend, which is confirmed in July with 6,803 fires occurring in the region, against 5,318 in 2019.
As dramatic as they are, these figures are unfortunately “not a surprise”, estimates at France 24, Cécile Leuba, forestry campaign manager for Greenpeace France. “All of these fires are intentionally started by humans and are, most of the time, related to deforestation. However, deforestation increased by almost 35% between August 2019 and July 2020 ”, she laments.
The illegal loggers especially intensified their activities during the confinement: the deforestation of the Amazon increased by 64% in April and during the first week of May compared to 2019. This massive deforestation is partly explained by the reduction of controls environmental crime officers, linked to travel restrictions.
Fires that are becoming “uncontrollable”
“Concretely, the landowners cut a lot of wood during the wet period, that is to say between January and June. They sold their stocks and then set fire to the brush during the dry season between June and July. Burning the land is in their eyes a way to clear space for their pastures and soybean fields ”, explains the specialist.
The ecological emergency is all the more real, as it is being aggravated by global warming. “The more the temperatures rise, the drier the ecosystem will be and the more the fires will get out of control,” worries Cécile Leuba. As a reminder, the fires in the Amazon consumed more than 900,000 hectares last year.
If a new record is likely to be reached this year, its echo in the media and in the international community could be relegated to the background. “The current context is obviously not helping. The Amazon made the headlines last year when news was a bit slack. But fires can hardly compete with a global pandemic ”, remarks Hervé Théry, geographer specializing in Brazil, interviewed by France 24.
Impunity for illegal loggers
Deforestation can continue, especially as its perpetrators enjoy a climate of near total impunity. “We have identified 207 owners who illegally set fire to protected reserves. Only 5% of them were fined for what they had done, “said Franceinfo, Romulo Batista, Amazon campaigner for Greenpeace Brazil. This impunity feeds in particular on the contempt of Brazilian power for ecological issues. Once again this year, President Jair Bolsonaro strongly rejected the existence of forest fires in the Amazon, evoking “a lie”, despite government data indicating that thousands of fires had broken out in the region.
Already last year, the far-right leader denied an upsurge in fires, despite pressure from the international community. “The situation is aberrant. Jair Bolsonaro discredits the government figures but also those of the INPE, which are nevertheless based on satellite analyzes. These are raw, scientific data that are benchmarks and against which we cannot oppose “, insists Cécile Leuba. “Likewise, Greenpeace teams regularly fly over the area and have taken pictures where the fires can be seen very clearly. We can not close our eyes, ”adds the specialist.
“The Bible, the bullets and the oxen”
But ecological concerns hardly enter the policy of a notoriously climate-skeptical head of state. “Bolsonaro multiplies his provocations, addressing his electorate, this famous ‘three B’s’ (the Bible, the bullets, the oxen) which bring together evangelical religious, the military and the landowners. For him, the development of his country only involves opening up protected lands to mining and agriculture. There is therefore little reason for the situation to change, ”notes Hervé Théry.
The fact remains that beyond the ecological disaster, the fires could worsen the health situation, say scientists. The fires could cause more respiratory illnesses and saturate the health system in a region already weakened by Covid-19.